Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS or TNS is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. TENS, by definition, covers the complete range of transcutaneously applied currents used for nerve excitation although the term is often used with a more restrictive intent, namely to describe the kind of pulses produced by portable stimulators used to reduce pain. A typical battery-operated TENS unit is able to modulate pulse width, frequency, and intensity. More recently, many TENS units use a mixed frequency mode which alleviates tolerance to repeated use. Intensity of stimulation should be strong but comfortable with greater intensities, regardless of frequency, producing the greatest analgesia. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is a commonly used treatment approach to alleviate acute and chronic pain by reducing the sensitization of dorsal horn neurons, elevating levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine, and inhibiting glial activation.
Incidence of anal cancer has risen among MSM as people with HIV live longer
One moment, please
Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases STDs. It is a bacterial infection spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A chlamydia test looks for chlamydia bacteria in a sample of fluid from your body. The sample may be:.
Human papillomavirus HPV infection, anal dysplasia abnormal cell changes , and anal cancer are more prevalent among HIV-positive men who have sex with men MSM than in the general population, and studies have found that the incidence of anal cancer has risen as people with HIV live longer thanks to effective antiretroviral therapy. Mark Freedman and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project MMP , which conducted interviews and extracted information from medical records for a representative sample of HIV-positive adults receiving care in the U. They asked what patient and provider characteristics are associated with anal cancer screening and whether men with anal cancer risk factors were more likely to be screened. There are currently no U. Prior studies have shown mixed results regarding the clinical utility, cost-effectiveness, and impact on survival of cytology testing, and there are not enough healthcare providers trained to perform anoscopy.
Some of the most important news from the virtual R4P conference this year included early results from two large HIV transmission studies using a monoclonal antibody mAb called VRC It was then isolated and manufactured into a treatment in a collaboration involving many leading public health laboratories. Results were presented as a late-breaker oral abstract by Lawrence Corey, study co-chair. Further aspects of this research discussed other aspects of this important research in the last roundtable symposium of the meeting.